Transactions on Maritime Science https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms <p>Transactions on Maritime Science (ToMS) is a scientific journal with international peer review. The journal is published in English as an open access journal, and as a classic paper journal (in limited edition). ToMS aims to present best maritime research from South East Europe, particularly the Mediterranean area.</p> University of Split, Faculty of Maritime Studies en-US Transactions on Maritime Science 1848-3305 About ToMS: Ethics, Conflict of Interest, License and Guides for Authors https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/424 Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 292 298 Impressum https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/447 Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 From Editor-in-Chief: We are Stronger Together https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/422 Igor Vujović Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 5 5 GARBÌNODA PÕRE MÔRE https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/423 Rina Repanić Gotal Mirna Čudić Žgela Copyright (c) 2021 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 290 291 ARMA Model-Based Prediction of the Number of Vessels Navigating the Istanbul Strait Unassisted by Maritime Pilots https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/325 <p>The Istanbul Strait is one of the busiest and riskiest trade routes, with the annual traffic of 50,000 ships. Such high traffic density is managed by the enforcement of a passage regimen by the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and maritime pilots of the Directorate General of Coastal Safety of the Republic of Turkey. VTS operations and maritime pilot actions are assumed to complement each other. Accordingly, a vessel unaccompanied by a maritime pilot is expected to interact with the VTS to a greater extent than a vessel assisted by a maritime pilot. Thus, estimating the number of ships that pass through the Istanbul Strait, especially those that do not use maritime pilot assistance, will be an effective tool for the Istanbul Strait traffic scheme management, as it will allow the authorities to balance and integrate VTS and maritime pilot operations. The predictive model based on Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) described in this paper has been developed to estimate the number of ships that navigate through the Istanbul Strait without pilot assistance. The best ARMA model was identified through the use of historical data on 100-150 meter and 150-200-meter-long ships that passed through the Istanbul Strait unaccompanied by pilots in 2012-2019. The ARMA model obtained has also been validated through the comparison of real and estimated data.</p> Pelin Bolat Gizem Kayisoglu Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 6 19 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.001 Examination of the Mechanical, Corrosion, and Tribological Behavior of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy AA8011 https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/372 <p>Aluminum alloy AA8011 is emerging as a promising material for modern engineering applications in which improved tensile strength, hardness, corrosion-resistance, and wear-resistance of materials are required. Typically, AA8011 alloys are utilized in air-conditioning ducts and heat exchanger fins in ships, leisure boats, luxury vessels, workboats, fishing vessels, and patrol boats. However, the conventional welding of AA8011 is a challenging procedure. In this context, this paper focuses on the development of an effective solid-state welding methodology for AA8011 alloy welding. The AA8011 alloy was friction stir welded by varying the tool rotation speed, traverse speed, and shoulder diameter. The microhardness, tensile strength, joint efficiency, elongation, corrosion rate, and wear rate of the friction stir welded specimens were compared with the base material. Fractography analysis was conducted after the tensile test and surface morphology analysis after corrosion and wear tests, using scanning electron microscopy. The compositional elements in the corroded and worn section of the specimens were analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on the joint efficiency as a primary constraint, the optimum process parameters for friction stir welding of aluminum alloy AA8011 have been established as follows: tool rotation speed of 1200 rpm, tool traverse speed of 45 mm/min, and tool shoulder diameter of 21 mm.</p> R. Arun Kumar R. Vaira Vignesh N. Srirangarajalu R. Padmanaban Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 20 41 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.002 Oil Tanker Simplified Fatigue Assessment with Inspection and Repair Approach and Parameters https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/353 <p>The occurrence of cracks in the hull structure of oil tankers is an important concern for the maritime industry because crack propagation will reduce collapse strength of deck-stiffened panels and, consequently, decrease the ultimate hull girder capacity of ship’s structures. Fatigue is an important design criteria for ships to ensure a sufficiently high safety level. Fatigue life predictions of ship’s structural details have traditionally been carried out using S-N approach and the Palmgren-Miner’s rule. The principal objective of such approach is to estimate the time to failure in order to ensure a satisfactory design lifetime of ship’s structural components. Potential cracks are considered to occur in the side shell, in the connections between longitudinal stiffeners and transverse web frame. The main objectives of the present study are to evaluate the fatigue life of vessel’s amidships using the simplified fatigue method, which is based on DNVGL-CG-0129 “<em>Fatigue Assessment of Ship Structures</em>” in order to determine the main cause of the observed cracks on the single skin oil tanker. Fatigue assessment was based on worldwide trade. Longitudinal stiffeners at transverse frames amidships are considered. The results show that fatigue life is generally above 20 years; however, analysis has revealed that the fatigue life of typical stiffener transitions in the side shell is below 20 years. The fatigue lives of side shell longitudinals are regarded as normal for ships built in the period between 1980 and 1990 with extensive use of high tensile steel in the side shell. Inspection and repair proposals of details with fatigue lives below 20 years are advised accordingly. Findings of fatigue analyses provide remaining life assessment, inspection plan definition, determination of repair and modification solutions, and avoiding integrity issues resulting in production downtime and hot work or dry dock.</p> Ozgur Ozguc Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 42 55 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.003 Proposition for Simplified Calculation of a Roll Motion of Ship in Waves with Partially Flooded Compartments https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/361 <p>This paper contains a description of a numerical model for calculating behaviour of ships in waves. There are many models available, but the one described here can be characterised with a set of parameters that have a decisive impact on the final values of roll motion amplitude and frequency. In this paper, it is shown how a fitting of a standard-shape hull characterised by certain readily available parameters affects the final roll and frequency of the motion. In addition, calculations for a flooded tank were made, and a range of results for the maximum dynamic heeling forces from this tank is shown. This calculation can further be verified for a range of hull dimensions and geometries to present a viable method to the industry.</p> Piotr S Szulczewski Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 56 67 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.004 New Aspects of Progress in the Modernization of the Maritime Radio Direction Finders (RDF) https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/359 <p>This paper as an author contribution introduces the implementation of the new aspects in the modernization of the ships Radio Direction Finders (RDF) and their modern principles and applications for shipborne and coastal navigation surveillance systems. The origin RDF receivers with the antenna installed onboard ships or aircraft were designed to identify radio sources that provide bearing the Direction Finding (DF) signals. The radio DF system or sometimes simply known as the DF technique is de facto a basic principle of measuring the direction of signals for determination of the ship's position. The position of a particular ship in coastal navigation can be obtained by two or more measurements of certain radio sources received from different unspecified locations of transmitters on the coast. In the past, the RDF devices were widely used as a radio navigation system for aircraft, vehicles, and ships in particular. However, the newly developed RDF devices can be used today as an alternative to the Radio – Automatic Identification System (R-AIS), Satellite – Automatic Identification System (S-AIS), Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT), radars, GNSS receivers, and another current tracking and positioning systems of ships. The development of a modern shipborne RDF for new positioning and surveillance applications, such as Search and Rescue (SAR), Man over board (MOB), ships navigation and collision avoidance, offshore applications, detection of research buoys and for costal vessels traffic control and management is described in this paper.</p> Dimov Stojče Ilčev Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 68 83 10.7225/toms.v10.no01.005 Risk Analysis of DP Incidents During Drilling Operations https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/404 <p>This paper aims to present a method to determine the type of dynamic positioning (DP) incidents that have a more significant risk during drilling operations in the period 2007-2015, according to the element or the type of failure that causes the DP system to fail. Two different classifications are made: 1) according to the element that produces the incident (which has been the traditional classification in the industry) and 2) according to the type of error that arises, the latter being an alternative classification proposed in this paper. The predictable financial losses for each level of severity are used to define the resulting consequences for each case. A risk analysis is performed with the data obtained, showing the potentially more dangerous incidents, either because of their higher number of occurrences or because their consequences are remarkable. According to the classification proposed, the main causes with the higher risk results were power and environmental, according to the traditional classification, and fault/failure. Thus, the power segment’s combination of failures is the riskiest cause during the DP drilling operations.</p> Zaloa Sanchez-Varela David Boullosa-Falces Juan Luis Larrabe-Barrena Miguel Angel Gomez-Solaeche Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 84 100 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.006 Agent Based Onboard Firefighting System https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/406 <p>This paper presents a model of agent-based architecture for fighting fires on ships. The introduction of agent technology in firefighting decision-making is a step towards safe autonomous vessels.</p> <p>The human factor can be excluded through the introduction of agent-based technology for the detection and extinguishing of fires onboard ships. The aim is to reduce the number of injuries and deaths, and minimize loss of ships and cargo. Another advantage of agent-based technology is its easy interoperability with other automated onboard systems. The presented model was implemented on a prototype in a simulation environment. The results of the experiment conducted on the implemented prototype are also presented.</p> Dean Sumić Lada Maleš Marko Rosić Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 101 111 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.007 Simulation Modelling of Marine Diesel Engine Cooling System https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/398 <p>Every internal combustion engine operates on the principle of converting thermal energy into mechanical work. During fuel combustion in the engine cylinders, the heat is released. It also has its negative effects; one is overheating of the engine cylinders and the engine in general. Since the engine parts are made of metal with its own thermal characteristics, the optimal temperature must be achieved in order to protect the components from overheating and, thus, from undesirable consequences of overheating. For this purpose, cooling medium is used as a means of maintaining the optimum temperature. Keeping the system functional as long as possible and minimizing possible deviations are very complex and difficult tasks. The complexity of the marine cooling system requires finding the optimal modes of operation, which results in an increased use of simulation models. This paper indicates advantages of using system dynamics as a tool for simulating certain events in a very realistic and economically acceptable way to prevent negative consequences for the entire marine system. System dynamics became an indispensable segment of designing various systems as well as the diesel engine cooling system.</p> Tatjana Stanivuk Branko Lalić Jelena Žanić Mikuličić Marko Šundov Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 112 125 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.008 Assessment of Potential Negative Impact of the System of Factors on the Ship's Operational Condition During Transportation of Oversized and Heavy Cargoes https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/389 <p>The potential risks to vessels and crew in merchant shipping stem from human error, vulnerability to environmental influences, failure of shipboard systems and equipment. In case of transportation of heavy and oversized cargo, the preceding list can be expanded to include potential hazards directly associated with the cargo. This study identified a system of potential negative events in the transportation of oversized and heavy cargo under the influence of multiple factors. Negative events are divided into two categories: those occurring during loading/unloading and those occurring during transportation. The consequences of these negative events for cargo and operational condition of the ship are also identified. Six basic options for the operational condition of the vessel in the transportation process of oversized and heavy cargo have been determined. The conceptual model of the combination of factors affecting the operational condition of the vessel during the transportation of oversized and heavy cargo is formulated, and the chain of formation of the probability of negative events during the transportation of oversized and heavy cargo is identified and mathematically described. A basic pattern of relationship between various negative events occurring during transportation of oversized and heavy cargoes and ship's operational conditions is established. The obtained results allow the probability of possible negative events and change of ship's condition due to such influences during the transportation of the cargo category concerned to be estimated in practice, taking into account the specifics of a particular port, vessel and shipping line.</p> Svitlana Onyshchenko Olexandr Shibaev Oleksiy Melnyk Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 126 134 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.009 Predictive Safety Management System Development https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/364 <p>Safety management systems are used to systematically manage safety risks. The paper describes and explains safety management systems in the field of aviation. Three aviation safety management methodologies are presented in the paper: reactive, proactive, and predictive. The aim is to show how safety management systems operate in each of the three methodologies. The focus of the paper is on predictive safety management methodology, its advantages, and potential uses. An overview of predictive methods used in the aviation industry is also provided. The research collected information on each safety management methodology, and revealed correlations between them, improving our understanding of safety management systems in general. Based on research described in the paper, the author proposes the development of a more advanced safety management system, i.e. a predictive safety management system which would entail the development of an expanded and well-organised safety database, as well as the use of predictive (forecasting) methods to identify potential and emerging hazards, trends and behaviour patterns.</p> Dajana Bartulović Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 135 146 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.010 CR CyberMar as a Solution Path towards Cybersecurity Soundness in Maritime Logistics Domain https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/384 <p>Cybersecurity is now considered as one of the main challenges for the maritime sector. At the same time, the maritime transport industry remains one of the most relevant and driving sectors for the global economy in terms of both the number and operations of active companies, and infrastructure and investments, thanks to the policies pushed to attract the latter. Maritime information systems, whether on board ships or in ports, are numerous, built with standard components available on the market and in many cases designed without factoring in well the ever-growing cyber risk.</p> <p>Digital infrastructure has become essential in operating and managing systems critical to the safety and security of shipping and ports. Specifically, Cyber-MAR is focused upon the simulation and emulation of the real world of maritime systems (e.g. Logistics, Supply Chain). This research effort will examine the creation of a federated Cyber Range (CR Cyber-MAR) which will include various platforms and interconnected systems on board a vessel or ashore, in order to allow a hyper-realistic simulation of cyber-attacks and trying to assimilate them into real-life. Then the identified CR Cyber range will be integrated in the Cybersecurity training needs for different levels of operators.</p> <p>The investigation of the discussed topic will essentially use qualitative techniques, analysing data obtained from publications, official and commercial reports, and interviews of a targeted audience.</p> Monica Canepa Fabio Ballini Dimitrios Dalaklis Seyedvahid Vakili Luis Miguel Colmenares Hernandez Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 147 153 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.011 Employment and Gross Value Added Generated by Port Infrastructures: A Bibliographical Review and Empirical Findings to Support Policy Maker Decisions https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/360 <p>A relevant factor to be considered by policy makers is the economic impact of their decisions on port investments. A structured system for assessing the economic impact of port infrastructures was developed in the mid-60s in the USA. From then, a great number of works in this field has been carried out considering different geographical environments and using different methodologies and approaches. In this work, a complete set of 27 Spanish ports are reviewed, first from a chronological point of view and later establishing a comparative analysis of different indicators of port product­­­ivity. Special focus is put on comparing the contribution of the ports in generating employment and creating Gross Value Added generated in the local and regional economy. Direct, indirect, and induced impacts in both the port industry and the industry dependent on the existence of the port and its activities are considered.</p> Ignacio de la Peña Zarzuelo Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 154 170 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.012 Comparative Analysis of Two Seaports in the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/370 <p>Ports are complex systems that have an essential role in the transportation of freight and indisputable importance for economies worldwide. Port operation requires many resources, and their performance depends on various factors.</p> <p>This paper focuses on the Port of Koper in the Adriatic Sea, and the Port of Gdansk in the Baltic Sea. Two ports located in two very different countries, yet with similar recent history, are connected by the Baltic-Adriatic corridor.</p> <p>The authors have compared the recent development of these ports through the analysis of five elements, and determined that better strategic measures have been taken in the Port of Gdansk, resulting in the faster development of the port and the opportunity to further improve its performance by strengthening its position on the Central European markets. Koper could learn how to further stabilize its position in the North Adriatic region from the model employed by the Port of Gdansk. Reorganization is required to make Koper more competitive and capable of attracting fresh money. Also, the state should be much more supportive of the Port of Koper.</p> Marina Zanne Przemysław Borkowski Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 171 177 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.013 Application of Smart Technologies in Croatian Marinas https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/355 <p>The objective of this research is to analyse smart technologies implemented in Croatian marinas and their impact upon the safety and service quality improvement, sustainability, and environmental protection, as well as energy consumption and operations optimisation. Key performance indicators and a definition of smart marina concept have been derived based on the smart port concept. The analysis has been conducted on a sample of 78 marinas in six different counties along the Croatian coast. Ultimately, the SWOT analysis has been performed in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of introducing smart technologies in marina management. The results indicate that the Croatian marinas are undergoing a revolution in terms of facilitating booking management process and achieving greater safety and service quality, but still need to improve in the field of monitoring and controlling nautical tourism impact upon the environment.</p> Livia Maglić Ana Grbčić Lovro Maglić Ana Gundić Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 178 188 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.014 Argument for Evidence-Based Development of Sustainable Normative Framework for Nautical Tourism Ports: Case of Croatia https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/400 <p>Optimization of nautical tourism development largely depends on national normative frameworks since the use of maritime property is highly regulated in every country. This paper argues that the normative regulation of nautical tourism should take into consideration the historical relation between the key determinants of economic development. The paper analyzes a 15-year period (2005-2019) with respect to six crucial indicators of nautical tourism development: the number of ports, marinas, berths, employees, coast size (aquatorium), and revenues. Our research found very strong positive relationship between: the number of nautical tourism ports and revenues(r = 0.931); number of marinas and revenues (r = 0.985); number of employees in nautical tourism ports and generated revenues (r = 0.960); number of nautical tourism ports and number of employees (0.987); number of marinas and number of employees (r = 0.965). In addition, an intermediate level of relationship was found between: size of the aquatorium used by nautical tourism ports and income(r = 0.454), and size of the aquatorium and number of employees (r = 0.652). Finally, the paper reports weak relationships between the number of ports and number of berths (r = 0.353); number of berths and number of employees; number of berths and size of aquatorium used (r=0.335). The research results related to size of aquatorium are especially important since the current Croatian regulations based on the system of concessions have a discouraging effect on this aspect of the development of nautical tourism ports.</p> Tihomir Luković Damir Piplica Domagoj Hruska Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 189 199 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.015 Cruise Vessels Air Pollution Inventory for the Port of Kotor https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/319 <p>Prevention of air pollution from ships, according to MARPOL Annex VI, regulates the emission of specific pollutants contained in the exhaust gases into the atmosphere. In this paper, the Port of Kotor is analysed as a case study because of its distinct geographical features, permanent attraction for tourists, and the title of the third busiest port in the Adriatic in 2017. Ships arriving to the Port of Kotor represent one of the major sources of air pollution not only in the Port area, but also in Boka Kotorska Bay as an approach route towards the Port. For calculation of air pollution inventory in this case study, ship engines’ power method was used. The focus of the research analysis is on the cruise ships visiting the Port of Kotor in 2018. For that reason, all ships under 500 GT were excluded from the analysis. The pollution shows clear seasonal pattern characteristic for ports in the Mediterranean. This behaviour is emphasised as an increasing problem that needs to be addressed. The seasonal pattern causes 82.6% of all air pollution from cruise vessels concentrated in the period from May to November.</p> Karlo Bratić Ladislav Stazić Miroslav Vukičević Branko Lalić Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 200 207 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.016 Can Market-based Measures Stimulate Investments in Green Technologies for the Abatement of GHG Emissions from Shipping? A Review of Proposed Market-based Measures https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/386 <p>In order for the maritime sector to align itself with the targets set by the Paris Agreement, it should reduce its GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 with the ultimate aim to phase them out entirely. It is along these lines that in April 2018 the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) developed a strategy, consisting of a range of potential technical and operational measures to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping, ranking from improvements on ship design to the employment of alternative fuels. In order to stimulate the adoption of these policies, the IMO also considers the implementation of market-based measures (MBM) that will provide additional incentives to shipowners to invest in new technologies and uptake of cleaner fuels. The MBMs analysed in this paper include two different policies proposed by different countries and associations for the abatement of GHG emissions from shipping: a) the <em>International Fund for GHG emissions from ships</em> that includes the imposition of a global levy on marine bunker fuel for all vessels and b) the <em>Maritime Emission Trading System</em> (METS) that requires all maritime companies to buy/sell emission allowances to meet their annual emission reductions targets, setting a cap on global shipping emissions. This paper presents and analyses these two diverse MBMs, highlighting their main advantages and drawbacks. The scope of this paper is to investigate the potential of these MBMs to incentivise investments in new technologies and alternative fuels, both essential for the decarbonisation of the maritime sector.</p> Anastasia Christodoulou Dimitrios Dalaklis Aykut Ölcer Fabio Ballini Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 208 215 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.017 Conflict Related Incidents on Board Ships: An Online News Content Analysis https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/393 <p>Conflicts, while being unavoidable in an unorthodox workplace such as the ship, might produce serious consequences. This study aims to identify and classify the reasons and the consequences of conflict related incidents on board that have made the international news. For this aim twenty-two news articles on conflict related incidents have been gathered from eight maritime industry specific online news outlets and a content analysis has been carried out to illustrate the role of conflict in these news-worthy incidents. The results show that conflict can be observed in three categories: (1) Conflict between the crew members and the shipowner/ship management companies; (2) conflict between superiors and subordinates; and (3) conflict among crew members. In the first category, “unpaid wages” and “inadequate working conditions”, in the second category, “abuse of power and authority” and “intolerance to criticism”, and in the last category “fight among crew members” due to various reasons, such as ethnical differences and exclusion are found to be prevailing reasons for conflict situations that may result in dire consequences. Even though these incidents are irreversible, the content analysis carried out in this study highlights several policy implications that can be implemented to alleviate the intensity of conflict situation on board.</p> Egemen Ertürk Bayram Bilge Sağlam Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 216 223 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.018 Cumulative Analysis of Port State Control Based on Paris MoU Inspections https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/396 <p>The Port State Control (PSC) was established to control ships entering ports or coastal facilities under its jurisdiction, with inspections by PSC officers aiming to determine whether ships meet safety and pollution prevention requirements and comply with the standards prescribed under the relevant international conventions. Annual reports based on PSC’s inspection reports are published under each memorandum of understanding (MoU) regime. The detailed inspection reports within the scope of the PSC, that contain a variety of information about vessels, and the processing and sharing of such information with other regional MoUs are intended to reduce the number of non-conforming practices in the global maritime system. In addition, PSCs publish lists of black, gray and white (BGW) flags, with the classification depending on the number of ship deficiencies and detentions. The classification is an indication of the quality of national flags. When a ship is found to have deficiencies, the inspection takes longer, and when the deficiencies are serious, the vessel is detained. Detention periods mean financial losses for the operator and loss of reputation for the flag state. Hence, the lists of black, gray and white flags published by the regional regimes are important in terms of reflecting the reputation of different countries. For these purposes, in this study, the inspections and detentions under the Paris MoU in 2019 have been examined and analyzed by countries and regions. Countries are categorized by UN geographical regions. In particular, the goal of the study was to identify the flag countries of the most frequently inspected and detained ships in 2019, as well as to determine the strategic measures developed by the countries and establish their differences and similarities compared to inspections and detentions in 2018. In addition, the global COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 had a lockdown effect in the maritime domain and a profound effect on society, economy and health worldwide. The result of this study is the prediction of PSC efficiency in terms of the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect of the pandemic on the order of countries in the flag lists.</p> Firat Bolat Selcuk Alpaslan Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 224 246 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.019 Liquefied Natural Gas as Ship Fuel: A Maltese Regulatory Gap Analysis https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/387 <p>With water covering almost three-quarters of the Earth’s surface and by factoring in that the maritime transport industry is holding the comparative advantage in relation to all other means, activities associated with the seas and oceans of our planet are extremely vital for the normal functioning of global trade. Furthermore, evaluating the opportunities of the so-called “Blue Economy” and possibilities for further growth should be at the epicentre of future development plans. Indicative examples -apart from various endeavours of maritime transport- include other sectors, like shipbuilding and repairs, fishing activities and related processes, as well as oil and gas exploration. All these provide significant economic output and facilitate job creation.</p> <p>It is true that the shipping industry contributes to the carriage of vast quantities of cargo and maintains a crucial role in global trade; however, the specific industry is also responsible for significant quantities of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. IMO (MEPC) in 2018 adopted an initial strategy on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships. This plan envisages a reduction of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions per transport work, at least 40% by 2030, pursuing efforts towards even further reduction by 2050, compared to the 2008 levels. It is imperative for shipping and related industries to investigate and introduce more environmentally friendly (“cleaner”) ways of operation. In the search for these cleaner fuels, it is the responsibility of maritime stakeholders to make available (economically viable) fuel alternatives worldwide.</p> <p>In view of an increasing trend in using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a marine fuel, setting up regulations and amend national legislation to allow the provision of LNG as a ship fuel in a safe manner, is a first stage which potential service providing countries have to successfully fulfil. The current analysis is focusing on the small island state of Malta, which apart from certain international aspects introduced by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), it has to abide by European Union’s (EU) regulations and make LNG as a marine fuel available until 2025. Its main aim is to provide ways to cover the identified regulatory gap of the Maltese legislation, relating to ports, ship fuel bunkering and the local gas market.</p> Mark Philip Cassar Dimitrios Dalaklis Fabio Ballini Seyedvahid Vakili Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 247 259 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.020 How Delivery of Goods without Tendering of Bill of Lading Can Discharge Liability of Maritime Carrier https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/373 <p>This paper tends to clarify implications of delivery of goods performed by a maritime carrier to a consignee at the place of destination; particularly, a delivery made without receiving the original bill of lading in exchange for the goods delivered to the consignee. In spite of the importance of such delivery, none of the related international conventions has addressed the implications of such a delivery for the liability of the maritime carrier. This gap has given rise to inconsistency between the approaches adopted by various jurisdictions worldwide, and such a divergence will contradict the fundamental international principle of unifying the international maritime rules. Hence, the study is discussing the area of ambiguity under both the English and the Qatari law to reach some suggestions that could be adopted under both jurisdictions to clarify the legal position of maritime carriers as well as to protect them from liability arising under this delivery.</p> Derar Al-Daboubi Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 260 268 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.021 The Rights of Passengers in the Event of Death and Personal Injury on Board a Cruise Ship Under the 1974 Athens Convention and its 2002 Protocol - the Implementation of the Convention and The 2002 Protocol https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/397 <p>The rights of cruise ship passengers in the event of death and personal injury are dependent upon conditions under which carriers are liable and the extent of their liability. The development of the cruise industry necessitated the establishment of a regime of liability for loss suffered by passengers during voyage, that has been regulated by the Athens Convention and its 2002 Protocol. In the very beginnings of the cruise industry, transportation standards were much lower than today, with less attention paid to the needs of the passengers in terms of safety and legal standing. When the SOLAS Convention entered into force, a number of safety standards were designed to ensure passenger protection and safety, while the Athens Convention regulated and harmonized the legal status of passengers. Various other organizations also made a great contribution in this respect. In addition to the above, Regulation (EC) No 392/2009, the 2006 IMO Reservation and Guidelines, Directive 90/314/EEC and Directive (EU) 2015/2302, which contributed to the legal protection of passengers, need be mentioned.</p> <p>The rights granted under the Athens Convention will be compared with EU regulations and directives. The ratification process, the most important provisions, the progress achieved through the application of the Convention and the implementation process will be analysed. The development strategy and SWOT analysis can assist states with their decision on the ratification of the Convention and its Protocol. The aim is to draw conclusions about the legal effects of the implementation of the Convention in member states, based on a comprehensive analysis, and to provide passengers with information on their rights in international carriage</p> Srđan Vujičić Branka Milošević-Pujo Veronika Gašpar Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 269 280 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.022 The Interaction of GDP Growth Rate and FDI in Service Sector - Case of Croatia https://www.toms.com.hr/index.php/toms/article/view/410 <p>Croatia is characterised by a foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow, mainly in the service sector, which is partly understandable owing to the country's orientation towards tourism. On the other hand, theoretical and empirical research indicates a weak impact of FDI in the service sector on the economic growth of the recipient country. Following the theoretical framework and critical analysis of previous research, the paper, on the example of Croatia in the period q1/2000 - q3/2020, uses the VAR model to analyse the mutual influence of GDP growth rate and FDI in the service sector. The results show that the impact of the GDP growth rate on the FDI inflow into the service sector is more significant and longer lasting than vice versa. The paper emphasises the importance of the adopted growth model for the type of FDI inflows into the recipient country, which in this case is characterised by the appreciation of the real exchange rate as an indicator of the country's competitiveness, whose impact on FDI inflow into the service sector is positive and long lasting.</p> Mario Pečarić Tino Kusanović Antoni Šitum Copyright (c) 2021 Transactions on Maritime Science http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 10 1 281 288 10.7225/toms.v10.n01.023