Manuscript Preparation

Authors are required to use the template (Microsoft Office) that can be downloaded from this link.

1. Structure of the manuscript

First (title) page - the first page should carry:

- the paper title;
- full names (first name, middle – name initials, if applicable), and last names of all authors;
- abstract
- a list of 3 to 6 keywords
- names of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed. If authors belong to several different institutions, superscript digits should be used to relate the author's names to respective institutions. Identical number(s) in superscripts should follow the authors names and precede the institution names;
- mailing address and e-mail of the corresponding author(s);

Each manuscript should follow this sequence:

- title page;
- abstract;
- text (Introduction, Methods, Results, Conclusions/Discussion); figures and tables should be incorporated within text (each complete with title/legend/footnotes/source declaration);
- acknowledgments; conflict of interest statement
- references;

2. Text organization and style

Authors may use standard British or American spelling, but they must be consistent. The Editors retain the customary right to style and, if necessary, shorten texts accepted for publication.

This does not mean that we prefer short articles – actually, we do not limit their size - but rather a resection of the obviously redundant material.

The past tense is recommended in the Results Section.

Avoid using Latin terms; if necessary, they should be added in parentheses after the English terms. Real names rather than “levels” or “values” should refer to parameters with concrete units (e.g. concentration).

Only standard abbreviations and symbols may be used without definition and may be used in the title or the page-heading title.

Non-standard abbreviations should not be used in the title or page-heading title. They must be explained in the text in the following way: the term should be written in full when it appears in the text for the first time, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses; from then on, only abbreviation is used in the text. This applies separately to the Abstract and the rest of the text.

2.1. Abstract

ToMS requires that the authors prepare a structured abstract of not more than 300 words. The abstract should include (at least) four sections: Aims, Methods, Results, and Conclusion, not necessarily separated.

Aim. State explicitly and specifically the purpose of the study.

Methods. Concisely and systematically list the basic procedures, selection of study participants or laboratory/ experimental/simulation setup, methods of observation (if applicable) and analysis.

Results. List your primary results without any introduction. Only essential statistical significances should be added in brackets. Draw no conclusions as yet: they belong in to the next section.

Conclusion. List your conclusions in a short, clear and simple manner. State only those conclusions that stem directly from the results shown in the paper. Rather than summarizing the data, conclude from them.

2.2. Main text

Do not use any styles or automatic formatting except ones provided by the template. All superscripts or subscripts, symbols and math relations should be written in MathType or Equation editor.


The author should briefly introduce the problem, particularly emphasizing the level of knowledge about the problem at the beginning of the investigation. Continue logically, and end with a short description of the aim of the study, the hypothesis and specific protocol objectives. Finish the section stating in one sentence the main result of the study.


Key rules for writing the Results section are:

- the text should be understandable without referring to the respective tables and figures, and vice versa;
however, the text should not simply repeat the data contained in the tables and figures; and
- the text and data in tables and figures should be related to the statements in the text by means of reference marks.
Thus, it is best to describe the main findings in the text, and refer the reader to the tables and figures, implying that details are shown there. The formulations such as “It is shown in Table 1 that the outcome of Group A was better than that of Group B” should be replaced by “The outcome of Group A was better than that of Group B (Table 1).”

The need for brevity should not clash with the requirement that all results should be clearly presented.


The discussion section should include interpretation of study findings in the context of other studies reported in the literature. This section has three main functions:

- assessment of the results for their validity with respect to the hypothesis, relevance of methods, and significance of differences observed;
- comparison with the other findings presented in the relevant literature; and
- assessment of the outcome’s significance for further research.

Do not recapitulate your results, discuss them!

2.3. Tables

Information on significance and other statistical data should preferably be given in the tables and figures. Tables should not contain only statistical test results. Statistical significances should be shown along with the data in the text, as well as in tables and figures.

Tables should bear Arabic numerals. Each table should be put on a separate page. Each table should be self-explanatory, with an adequate title (clearly suggesting the contents), and logical presentation of data. The title should preferably include the main results shown in the table. Use tables in order to present the exact values of the data that cannot be summarized in a few sentences in the text.

Avoid repetitive words in the columns: these should be abbreviated, and their explanations given in the footnotes. Present data either in a table or a figure.

Each column heading for numerical data given should include the unit of measurement applied to all the data under the heading. Choose suitable SI units.

Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.

Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations that are used in each table.

2.4. Figures

Figures should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Legends to figures should be listed on a separate page, in consecutive order. Minimum resolution for all types of graphics is 300 dpi and 600 dpi is recommended. The legend of a figure should contain the word “Figure”, followed by its respective number and a figure title containing major finding (e.g. Manuscripts which follow Guidelines for Authors had higher acceptance rate, and not Relationship with manuscripts style and their acceptance rate).

Use simple symbols, like closed and open circles, triangles and squares. Different types of connecting lines can be used. The meanings of symbols and lines should be defined in the legend.

Each axis should be labeled with a description of the variable it represents.

Only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized. The labeling should be parallel with the respective axis. All units should be expressed in SI units and parenthesized. Make liberal use of scale markings.

Graphs, charts, titles, and legends in accepted manuscripts will be edited according to ToMS style and standards prior to publication.

Preferred format for graphs or charts is xls. Graphs and charts saved as image (raster) files such as JPG, TIF, or GIF and imported or copied/pasted into Word or Power Point are not acceptable.

The resolution for photographic images should be at least 300 dpi, and minimum image width should be 6 cm. Please submit files in RGB format. For published manuscripts, image files will be posted online in their original RGB format, maintaining the full color of your original files. Note that we will still need to convert all RGB files to CMYK for printing on paper and color shifts may occur in conversion. You will not receive a CMYK proof. You can view an approximation of print results by converting to CMYK in Adobe® Photoshop® or Adobe® Illustrator®.

2.5. Acknowledgments

Technical help, critical reviews of the manuscript and financial or other sponsorship may be acknowledged. Do not acknowledge paid services, e.g. professional translations into English.

2.6. Conflict of interest statement

At the very end of manuscript text - just before Literature and References section, authors should declare Conflict of interest (if any).

2.7. Supplementary materials

Supplementary materials are optional. Authors can submit different types of materials which will be available on-line.